NISO @ ALA Midwinter
Headshot of NISO Eexecutive Director, Todd Carpenter

December 2014

Standards development takes many paths from concept to final recommendation or specification. The process can begin in a variety of ways. One path begins with a concrete approach or solution that is already in use by a segment of the community that people want to extend and deploy in a broader context. Another path begins by rationalizing an assortment of similar approaches to solve an inefficient process and build a single consensus solution that can be widely implemented. Still another process is one where a problem is identified, but no specific solution or even a complete understanding of the full scope of the problem is clearly understood.

When to begin standards development and where its application can have the most significant impact is more of an art than a science and there is no perfect point at which the standards process should be brought to bear on an issue. When standards are developed too late in the process, many different solutions may already be in place and organizations are too invested in their individual solutions to adopt a common approach. Alternatively, a consensus process that is too early could inhibit innovation or create a solution ahead of the market, which then either languishes without adoption or is supplanted by other technological developments.

Navigating this timeline is one of the challenges we have faced regarding the NISO Alternative Assessment Metrics Initiative. This project, supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, began last fall with a brainstorming component that produced more than 200 different project ideas. Through a process of vetting by public comment, survey, steering committee, and a review by the NISO Business Information Topic Committee, we have winnowed down the ideas to five specific projects. These proposed projects are now before the NISO members for approval as a new standards development initiative. There is strong support already registered from NISO's Voting Members and it is likely that the projects will be approved. We will be seeking volunteers to work on the different project subgroups. Watch for a call to participate along with the announcement of the project's approval later this month.

Similarly, the NISO Bibliographic Roadmap project was in a similar position of lacking clarity on which specific initiatives needed focus when NISO began the community conversations in 2012, with support from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. While a report of the discussion forums was released in April 2014, it has taken some time to develop consensus on next steps. Last month, the NISO Content & Collection Management Topic Committee approved a new proposed three-part initiative and will be putting it forward to the NISO voting membership in early December. That proposal will focus on recommended practices related to documentation, interoperability, and preservation of linked open data and community vocabularies.

I'd like to close the last Newsline of 2014 with a word of thanks to all those who have contributed to NISO's success this year. You might be a volunteer, a voting member, a contributor or commenter on a project, or even just an attentive participant in one of our educational programs or open teleconferences, but your participation is incredibly valuable. NISO thrives because of the interest and support we receive from the community. If it weren't for these contributions we wouldn't have nearly the influence and impact that we do. People look to NISO now as a place to accomplish things, to promote and advance their work, and to solve problems. Every element of that success derives from our active and engaged community. It is truly something I, as Executive Director of NISO, am incredibly thankful for.


Todd Carpenter’s Signature

Todd Carpenter

Executive Director

NISO Reports

Information Standards Quarterly Magazine Fall 2014 issue on Identity Management Available in Open Access

The latest issue of Information Standards Quarterly with a theme of Identity Management is now available on the NISO website in open access. The full issue as well as individual articles are available for download in PDF format.

Identity management is critical to ensuring that licensed or owned electronic content is available to those who have rights to it. Libraries, publishers, and content providers are challenged with finding and implementing appropriate standards to implement identity management across platforms and among varied institutions. Guest editor, Andy Dale, CTO Respect Network, has compiled articles for this issue that discuss Privacy By Design, OCLC's vision for identity management, JSON standards, and identity management for the Internet of Things.

ISQ is also available in print to subscribers, NISO members who opt in to receive it, and in print-on-demand.

Subscription Packages Available for 2015 Educational Programs

NISO is once again offering discounted subscription packages for multiple educational programs in 2015. These include:

  • Buy 9 Webinars and Get 5 Free – Get all 14 NISO 2015 webinars.

  • Buy 5 Webinars and Get 4 Free – You pick which 9 NISO webinars you want.

  • Buy 4 Virtual Conferences, Get 2 Free – Get all six of the 2015 NISO virtual conferences.

  • NISO Members Only Special Offer: Buy 3 Virtual Conferences, Get 3 Free – Limited time offer through February 17, 2015.

Registration is per site (access for one computer); you may have as many people as you like from the registrant's organization view the conference from that one connection. Registrants to NISO webinars and virtual conferences receive access to the recorded version for one year.

For more information and to subscribe visit the webpages for webinar subscriptions or virtual conference subscriptions.

NISO Two-Part December Webinar: Sustainable Information

NISO will be holding a two-part webinar in December on the topic of Sustainable Information. Information resources are increasingly born digital and may never have a print counterpart. Many older resources are being digitized, with the digital resource now the primary version. But digital resources depend on technology and technology changes can render a resource inaccessible. To ensure digital information is sustainable, a preservation plan must be developed and implemented that addresses issues such as file formats, metadata, storage media, and compatible software and hardware.

In Part 1: Digital Preservation for Text—to be held on December 10 from 1:00 - 2:30 p.m. Eastern—speakers will share their experiences in developing a process for ensuring the preservation of digital textual resources.

In Part 2, to be held on December 17, the focus is on Digital Preservation of Audio-Visual Content. Audio-visual resources in digital formats present even more challenges to preservation than do digital text resources. While digital text may still be usable if done imperfectly (e.g., skewed but still readable pages), even small errors in digital A/V files could render the material unusable. This webinar will share the experiences of several projects that are working to ensure that A/V files can be preserved with their full integrity ensured.

You may register for one or both parts; registrants to both parts receive a 25% discount. For more information and to register, visit the event webpages: Part 1; Part 2.

January Webinar: Net Neutrality: Will Library Resources Be Stuck in the Slow Lane?

Net neutrality begins with the basic idea that the Internet is a fair and democratic platform for all. Organizations such as the American Library Association, the Association of Research Libraries, EDUCAUSE, and Internet2, among others, have spoken out about the critical need for retaining net neutrality in the library, higher education, and research communities.

Net neutrality is an issue that has been increasingly in the news, but it is something that has affected libraries for a lot longer. Many public libraries are in underserved communities where patrons may not have personal access to the internet, so the use of the public libraries' resources is critical for them. Without net neutrality, those public libraries may not be able to cost-effectively provide such Internet service. For the scholarly and academic communities, scholarly resources could be resigned to the slow lane of the net, if content providers and libraries don't have the resources to pay for the "fast lane." As resources increasingly go multimedia, requiring greater bandwidth, will libraries and content platform providers be saddled with taking on added costs to ensure reliable access?

NISO's webinar Net Neutrality: Will Library Resources Be Stuck in the Slow Lane?—to be held January 14 from 1:00 to 2:30 p.m. Easter time—will define Net Neutrality, explain what could happen without it, and how it can impact public and academic libraries and the wider information community.

For more information and to register, visit the event webpage.

New on the NISO Website

New Specs & Standards

EDItEUR, Thema version 1.1

EDItEUR and its Thema International Steering Committee have released version 1.1 of Thema, the new subject classification scheme that has quickly gained international acceptance since its launch in 2013. The new version includes around 120 new subject categories—including significant new categories for genre fiction, science and technology, and a wide range of refinements in children's non-fiction—90 new qualifiers, and roughly 200 other minor editorial changes. These additions increase the power and expressivity of Thema classifications. Some of the changes are specifically aimed at improving the fidelity of mappings (from example from BISAC to Thema), and some other improvements stem from work on translating or applying Thema in non-English language contexts. No categories from version 1.0 have been significantly modified or deleted, so the new version is fully compatible with version 1.0 and existing metadata remains valid and does not need revision.

International Image Interoperability Framework, Major Version Releases of Image and Presentation API Specifications

The International Image Interoperability Framework is a collaborative effort to produce a community framework for image delivery, driven and defined by a growing number of national libraries, research libraries, and cultural heritage institutions. Their common application programming interfaces (APIs) were developed to support interoperability between image repositories. The IIIF Image API specifies a web service that returns an image in response to a standard HTTP or HTTPS request. Changes in the Image API version 2 include added properties, the requirement to use the W3C Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) for level 1 compliance, and the requirement for a client to specify the format of the image as a file-extension like suffix on the URI. The IIIF Presentation API specifies a web service that returns JSON-LD structured documents that together describe the structure and layout of a digitized object or other collection of images and related content. Changes in the Presentation API version 2 include easier implementation of ranges, page-turning requirements, and a new section to describe collections of manifests, and sub-collections.

ISO 10161:2014, Information and documentation – Open Systems Interconnection – Interlibrary Loan Application Protocol Specification

Revision of the two-part interlibrary loan standard. Part 1, Protocol specification defines the protocol for an ILL application-service-element. Part 2: Protocol implementation conformance statement (PICS) proforma provides a proforma for implementers to complete to show their level of conformance with Part 1. The new edition represents minor revisions that include clarification of the transition from the processing phase to the tracking phase, clarification that the outgoing SHIPPED ADPU and RETURNED ADPU are optional, prohibiting multiple invocations of RETreq, addition of the disable EXPIRY timer action, and deletion of references to the maintenance agency.

ISO/IEC TS 30135:2014, Information technology – Digital publishing – EPUB3

The seven-part EPUB3 standard, developed by the International Digital Publishing Forum, has been fast-tracked through publication as an ISO Technical Specification. The seven parts are:

Learning Resource Metadata Initiative, LRMI Metadata Terms as RDF (Comment Draft)

This is a Working Draft from the DCMI Community Specification Committee (CSC) and is intended for public review and comment from 1 December 2014 through 31 December 2014. The LRMI specification is a collection of classes and properties for markup and description of educational resources. The specification builds on the extensive vocabulary provided by and other standards. The RDF encoding of the LRMI 1.1 specification is a deliverable of the DCMI/LRMI Task Group under the Work Package transferring the LRMI 1.1 specification to DCMI. Comments can be sent to lrmi-comment(at)

Media Stories

EIDR and ISAN UK Announce Launch of UK AV Registration Agency
EIDR and ISAN UK Ltd Press Release, November 20, 2014

"The Entertainment ID Registry (EIDR) and the founders of ISAN UK today announced collaboration on a new joint ID service to the film and television industry in the UK. Under the terms of the collaboration, EIDR and ISAN UK will form the UK AV Registration Agency and expand its mission to deliver both EIDR IDs and ISANs, effectively becoming a 'one-stop shop' for UK organisations that wish to uniquely identify their audiovisual content to support both rights management applications and the automated digital distribution workflows." (Read the full story.)

NISO Note: NISO is the Secretariat for ISO TC46/SC9, the committee responsible for the ISAN standard (ISO 15706).

International ISBN Agency launches the Global Register of Publishers
International ISBN Agency Press Release, October 30, 2014

The Global Register of Publishers (GRP), a sister website to the main International ISBN Agency website, collates information provided by many of the 151 national ISBN agencies around the world about the publishers that have received ISBNs or ISBN prefixes. This data is being made available freely to the public for the first time to carry out simple searches and to retrieve basic publisher name and prefix information. More advanced searches and more detailed publisher contact information is available to users who choose to register, which is completely free. (Read the full story.)

ORCID Issues Its One Millionth Identifier
ORCID Blog, November 17, 2014; by Laure Haak

"ORCID has issued its 1 millionth identifier. We have reached this milestone two years after the launch of the ORCID Registry through the collaborative effort of researchers, Ambassadors, and member integrators.…We've been releasing a number of new features…including a BibTex importer, delegate functionality, and soon, a new user interface that supports sorting and editing, and helps users manage multiple versions of works. …Publishers have been integrating ORCID identifiers into manuscript submission, review, and production workflows. Funders have been integrating identifiers into common CV platforms, and grant application and award workflows. Universities have been integrating identifiers into thesis submission, staff onboarding, faculty profiles, research reporting, and access management systems. We are also seeing integration of ORCID identifiers into data repositories, research metrics systems, and peer review platforms. …In 2015, our focus will be on improving our APIs to streamline access to data." (Read the full story.)

The Social, Political and Legal Aspects of Text and Data Mining (TDM)
D-Lib Magazine, 20 (11/12), November/December 2014; by Michelle Brook, Peter Murray-Rust, and Charles Oppenheim

"The ideas of textual or data mining (TDM) and subsequent analysis go back hundreds if not thousands of years. Originally carried out manually, textual and data analysis has long been a tool which has enabled new insights to be drawn from text corpora. However, for the potential benefits of TDM to be unlocked, a number of non-technological barriers need to be overcome. These include legal uncertainty resulting from complicated copyright, database rights and licensing, the fact that some publishers are not currently embracing the opportunities TDM offers the academic community, and a lack of awareness of TDM among many academics, alongside a skills gap." (Read the full story.)

Bibliometric Indicators for Publishers: Data processing, indicators and interpretation
EC3metrics Working Paper; version 2.0, December 11, 2014; by Nicolás Robinson-García, Evaristo Jiménez-Contreras, Enrique Fuente-Gutierrez, and Daniel Torres-Salinas

"The Bibliometric Indicators for Publishers Project, an initiative undertaken by EC3Metrics SL for the analysis and development of indicators based on books and book chapters…goal is to study and analyze the publication and citation patterns of books and book chapters considering academic publishers as the unit of analysis. In this working paper we present the website where all findings derived from the project are displayed. We describe the data retrieval and normalization process and we show the main results. A total 482,470 records have been retrieved and processed, identifying 342 publishers from which 254 have been analyzed. Then six indicators have been calculated for each publisher for four fields and 38 disciplines and displayed." The six indicators are organized into three categories: Output (total number of books, total number of book chapters), Impact (total number of citations, field normalized citation score), and Publisher Profile (activity index, percentage of edited items). (Read the full story.)

On the Shoulders of Giants: The Growing Impact of Older Articles
Google, Inc. paper, November 4, 2014; by Alex Verstak, Anurag Acharya, Helder Suzuki, Sean Henderson, Mikhail Iakhiaev, Cliff Chiung Yu Lin, Namit Shetty

"In this paper, we examine the evolution of the impact of older scholarly articles. We attempt to answer four questions. First, how often are older articles cited and how has this changed over time. Second, how does the impact of older articles vary across different research fields. Third, is the change in the impact of older articles accelerating or slowing down. Fourth, are these trends different for much older articles. … There are three conclusions from our study. First, the impact of older articles has grown substantially over 1990-2013. In 2013, 36% of citations were to articles that are at least 10 years old; this fraction has grown 28% since 1990. The fraction of older citations increased over 1990-2013 for 7 out of 9 broad areas and 231 out of 261 subject categories. Second, the increase over the second half (2002-2013) was double the increase in the first half (1990-2001). Third, the trend of a growing impact of older articles also holds for even older articles. In 2013, 21% of citations were to articles >= 15 years old with an increase of 30% since 1990 and 13% of citations were to articles >= 20 years old with an increase of 36%." (Read the full story.)

AB 609: California Leads on Open Access to Publicly Funded Research
Library Journal, November 6, 2014; by Lisa Peet

"California has become the first state to mandate open access for the products of some taxpayer-funded research. On September 29 Governor Jerry Brown signed into law the California Taxpayer Access to Publicly Funded Research Act.…Beginning January 1, 2015, the products of more than $200 million in annual research paid for by California taxpayers will be freely available—with some restrictions: AB 609 applies only to research funded by the Department of Public Health. The legislation requires researchers whose work is supported by a fully or partially state-funded grant, and has been accepted for publication by a peer-reviewed journal, to submit an electronic version of this resulting article to a publicly accessible database. The database itself is not specified; suggested options include the University of California's (UC) eScholarship Repository at the California Digital Library (CDL), PubMed Central, or the California Digital Open Source Library (CDOSL)." (Read the full story.)

NISO Note: California Digital Library (CDL), National Library of Medicine, and Public Library of Science (PLoS) are NISO Voting Members.