Headshot of NISO Managing Director, Todd Carpenter

July 2008

The American Library Association conference is always a busy conference for all those that attend. It seems that there are at least five important things that one could do at any given time. This year, for NISO at least, we didn't always have the option of which meeting to attend because there were a tremendous number of NISO and standards-related programs and presentations on the agenda in which we participated. In part, the increased interest in standards due to the pace of activities that NISO is launching or wrapping up.

Last month saw the completion of the Journal Article Versions Recommended Practice. This project has been much needed for several years and we hope that this recommendation will add some clarity to the variety of versions that people might encounter in institutional repositories, personal web pages, or in the more formal publication and distribution channels. More about the report is below.

The Cost of Resources Exchange (CORE) initiative, described in this issue of Newsline, was approved as a new NISO project and launched in June. The goal of the CORE project is to define the critical data elements that are needed to exchange order, cost, and purchase details between ILS and ERM systems. The group is just now coalescing and is seeking participants.

There was much talk at ALA about the Linking International Standard Serial Number (ISSN-L) that was introduced in the new revision of the ISSN standard. This linking identifier is being used to relate different media instances of the same serial publication, such as print, online, or CD-ROM. Its application will facilitate grouping of the various medium versions, and thus facilitate content management. The ISSN International Centre has worked to retroactively assign ISSN-L to all existing ISSN metadata records. For those of you who did not hear about ISSN-L at ALA, this is a project that is certainly worth following and learning more about. Click here for some introductory information.

During ALA, NISO held our second co-sponsored program with the Book Industry Study Group (BISG) on June 27, which is becoming a regular Friday afternoon feature before the start of the ALA Annual conference. The program pulled together a terrific group of speakers on a range of standards topics, from identification to licensing, that affect both libraries and publishers. The presentations from the program will be available on the NISO/BISG Forum webpage.

Finally, there were several opportunities for new standards that were brought up during programs and in the numerous conversations that take place in the hallways, on the exhibit floor, and over dinner. Among the interesting project ideas that were suggested were the creation of an identifier for publisher-library licenses, a report on the costs of poor metadata and the value of improving its quality, potential testing of the forthcoming RDA structures, and the common ILL reporting structures. One can expect that in the coming months more will be heard about at least some of these ideas.

After a hectic spring with many NISO and community accomplishments, hopefully we all will get a chance to relax and enjoy the slower pace of summer—at least for a short while.

With kindest regards,

Todd Carpenter’s Signature

Todd Carpenter
Managing Director

NISO Reports

NISO/ALPSP Committee Releases Best Practices for Journal Article Versions

NISO, in partnership with the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers (ALPSP), has published the Recommended Practice Journal Article Versions (JAV): Recommendations of the NISO/ALPSP JAV Technical Working Group (NISO-RP-8-2008). The publication is designed to provide a simple, practical way of describing the versions of scholarly journal articles that typically appear online before, during, and after formal journal publication. This document is freely available from the NISO website.

"Static, single copies of research papers that are essentially facsimiles of a single, unambiguously identified printed document are a thing of the past," stated Bernard Rous, Deputy Director of Publications at the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and Co-Chair of the JAV Working Group. "Changes in the way we create, produce, and store articles lead to multiple versions that are often all discovered together through web searches. Our working group addressed the consequent problem: how to identify the versions retrieved and clarify the relationships among them."

In September 2005, NISO launched the partnership with ALPSP to bring together experts from the publishing, library, library systems, and user communities to examine the problems associated with the proliferation of different article versions. Led initially by Cliff Morgan, Vice President, Planning & Development Director at John Wiley & Sons Ltd., the group focused its attention on describing the important stages in the production of scientific articles.

The JAV Working Group also created use cases to explore the lifecycle of journal articles, starting from a base case that describes a typical interaction among author, institutional repository, and publisher. Rather than addressing all possible iterations of an article from origination to publication, the group focused on key stages in recording a document's development.

"This project has made a significant advancement in the identification and description of common lifecycle stages of articles," noted Ian Russell, Chief Executive of ALPSP. "The evolution of articles—and possible attributes of each instance of an article version—is a critical component of understanding, managing, and sharing information in the rapidly changing publication landscape."

Several variables were considered as possible dimensions to identify a particular article version:

  • Time: from first draft to latest version
  • Added Value: from rough draft to polished publication
  • Manifestation/Rendition: different document formats and layouts
  • Siblings: multiple mappings between technical reports, conference papers, lectures, journal articles, review articles, etc.
  • Stakeholders: author, editor, referee, publisher, librarian, reader, funding organization

Components of the JAV Recommended Practice include a narrative that explains the project background and rationale for recommended terms and definitions, and appendices that cover "Graphical Representation of Journal Article Versions and Relationships with Formal and Grey Literature; Assumptions, Primary Challenges, and Best Practices," use cases, and comments from the JAV Review Group on recommendations received on an earlier draft document.

"The breadth of participation in this process helps to ensure that the group has captured the essence of production lifecycles across a broad range of publishers," said Todd Carpenter, Managing Director of NISO. "In addition, having the partnership with ALPSP behind the report should encourage the wide adoption of this terminology and descriptive information in our community."

NISO plans to aggressively promote use of the JAV recommendations in the information dissemination community over the coming months.

Proposed CORE Standard to Form Information Bridge Between ILS and ERMS

NISO voting members have approved work on a new standard project, CORE (Cost Of Resource Exchange), to facilitate the exchange of cost, fund, vendor, and invoice information between Integrated Library Systems (ILS), Business Systems, Electronic Resource Management Systems (ERMS) and other interested parties such as Subscription Agents. People interested in joining the Cost of Resource Exchange (CORE) Working Group or affiliated interest group are asked to contact NISO. The target date for completion of the draft standard is December 1, 2008.

The new work item was first proposed by Jeff Aipperspach (Product Manager, Serials Solutions), Ted Koppel (AGent Verso (ILS) Product Manager, Auto-Graphics, Inc.), and. Ed Riding (Technical Product Manager, SirsiDynix). In describing the project, Riding said, "We have three main goals. First, we want to develop and refine the list of data elements exchanged between an ERMS, ILS, Business Systems, and other interested parties holding acquisitions metadata to support the population of the ERMS with financial and vendor information in the automated system. Second, we intend to create a transport protocol useful in moving these data elements from one system to another. Third, we will write a small number of use cases which will help all parties understand the capabilities of the protocol."

"With real-time lookups and cost-per-click and other cost-related reports in the ERMS, users will be able to avoid manually entering the same data in two different systems," said Patricia Brennan, Manager, Evaluative Products, Thomson Reuters, and Chair of the NISO Business Information Topic Committee that oversees the new Working Group. "Using defined XML data schemas, the standard will provide a common method of requesting cost-related information from an ILS for a specific electronic resource. Once implemented, this standard could well be expanded to include other elements."

Todd Carpenter, Managing Director or NISO, added: "We expect great interest from librarians who have implemented an ERMS, ERMS creators, and ILS creators and hope that they will comment on the process every step of the way toward a final standard."

The Working Group expects to complete the XML schema by November 1, 2008 and have an approved American National Standard by Spring 2009. People interested in this project should contact Karen A. Wetzel, NISO Standards Program Manager. An initial group roster is expected by July 11, 2008. An e-mail "interest" list will also be established for those who want to follow the project's progress.

New Versions of ONIX for Serials SRN and SPS

EDItEUR, the international group coordinating development of the standards infrastructure for electronic commerce in the book and serials industries, has announced the availability of new versions of both the ONIX for Serials SRN (Serials Release Notification) message format and the SPS (Serials Products and Subscription) message formats.

ONIX for Serials is a family of XML formats for communicating information about serial products and subscription information, using the design principles and many of the elements defined in ONIX for Books. The development of ONIX for Serials has been a joint project of EDItEUR and NISO.

The SRN message is used for communicating information about the physical publication or electronic availability of one or more serial releases. Content suppliers, content consumers, and intermediaries will all find it advantageous to send and/or receive Serial Release Notifications to advertise the availability of new content, helping to minimize unnecessary claims, and allowing the automatic maintenance of precise holdings in online catalogs and link resolvers.

SRN version 0.92 contains two new messages. The ONIX SRN Content Item Description contains metadata describing individual articles within a release and can be used to distribute tables of contents for serial releases. The ONIX SRN Content Item Extended Description describes individual articles in more detail, including the same information as the ONIX SRN Content Item Description message, plus enough additional information (such as subjects, abstracts and related resources) to generate entries in abstracting and indexing databases.

SPS version 0.92 contains a revised and improved structure for transmitting prices. In addition, the <JournalIssue> and <Embargo> composites have been replaced by a <Coverage> composite, providing for more precise expression of the enumeration and chronology of issues included in a subscription product.

The EDItEUR ONIX for Serials website includes links to the XML schemas for these formats as well as an overview document and detailed user guides for implementation.

Both formats are currently being piloted. Please send comments and suggestions to brian@bic.org.uk.

Thought-Leaders in Policy, Innovation, and Advocacy Headline SPARC Fall Digital Repositories Meeting

Higher-education leader David Shulenburger, Science Commons head John Wilbanks, and marketing communications strategist Bob Witeck are keynote speakers slated for the SPARC Digital Repositories Meeting 2008 in Baltimore on November 17-18. The international gathering, organized by SPARC (the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition) in cooperation with SPARC Europe, and SPARC Japan (a Japan National Informatics Institute initiative), will offer a practical exploration of how open online archives hosted by universities, colleges, and government agencies can enhance their service to scholars, institutions, and the public.

In the opening keynote address, John Wilbanks, Vice President for Science at Creative Commons and director of the Science Commons program, will provide his unique and inspiring vision for the potential of a fully enabled research Web. The following day, Bob Witeck, CEO and co-founder of Witeck-Combs Communications, a renowned marketing communications and public relations agency in Washington, DC, will tackle how repository advocates can introduce their services to campus and agency communities. David Shulenburger, Vice President for Academic Affairs at the National Association of State University and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) will wrap up the meeting with a public policy perspective on the emerging role of open digital repositories.

Joining the keynoters are speakers and panelists from around the world, who will look at four conference program areas – The Policy Environment, New Horizons, Value-added User Services, and Campus Publishing Strategies. Invited speakers include: Sayeed Choudhury (Johns Hopkins University, USA), Rea Devakos (University of Toronto T-Space, Canada), Norbert Lossau (Goettingen State and University Library and DRIVER, Germany), Bernard Rentier (University of Liege, Belgium), and Syun Tutiya (Chiba University, Japan). Additional speakers are to be selected by an expert program committee from submitted proposals.

The SPARC Digital Repositories Meeting 2008 is supported by major contributions from Microsoft (Conference Sponsor) and Berkeley Electronic Press (Coffee Break Sponsor), and by additional contributions from a number of Supporting Organizations, including: the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN), the DSpace Foundation, Fedora, Hewlett-Packard (HP), the Japanese Coordinating Committee for University Libraries, JISC (the UK's Joint Information Systems Committee), and the National Information Standards Organization (NISO).

This meeting is a follow up to SPARC's popular 2004 institutional repositories conference, which drew hundreds of participants from around the globe and set the stage for some of the key developments in open access of the past four years.

To register for the SPARC Digital Repositories Meeting 2008 or for more details, including biographies for the keynote speakers and sponsorship opportunities, visit the conference website. Early Bird Registration ends September 15.

NISO/ALCTS Webinar Demystifies Library Standards

NISO and ALCTS held the first in a series of webinars on Demystifying Library Standards on June 18. Over 100 participants received and introduction to standards and their use in libraries and were encouraged to participate in the standards development process.

Pamela Bluh, Associate Director for Technical Services & Administration at the Thurgood Marshall Law Library at the University of Maryland and ALCTS President introduced the webinar placing it in the context of other ALCTS educational offerings and future NISO/ALCTS webinars.

Karen Wetzel (NISO Standards Program Manager) reviewed NISO's role in standards development, emphasizing NISO's educational mission and its community partnerships. She highlighted NISO work in the development pipeline such as the revision to the NISO Circulation Interchange Protocol (NCIP), and a proposed revision to the Digital Talking Book standard. Wetzel touched on NISO's newest projects, Cost of Resource Exchange (CORE), Institutional Identifiers (I²), and Knowledge Base and Related Tools (KBART).

Julia Gammon (Head Acquisitions Department, University Libraries and Interim Marketing Manager, University of Akron Press, University of Akron) provided several definitions and examples of standards in general and then defined library standards as "common and repeated use of rules, conditions, guidelines, or characteristics for products or related processes." She identified four types of standards: local, state, national, and international and also categorized standards by their purpose, their intended user group, and the manner in which they specify requirements. Garmmon highlighted a number of reasons why libraries do and should use standards, summarizing the long-term benefits as: "It makes good business sense and it provides an efficient foundation for collaboration, future growth, or changes."

Trisha Davis (Associate Professor, Rights Management Coordinator, and Head Serials & E-Resources Department, the Ohio State University Libraries) described the many standards development organizations involved in library standards—including NISO, the International Standards Organization (ISO), the Library of Congress, the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), and the Medical Library Association (MLA)—and identified examples of their standards, both the well-known, such as Z39.50 and MARC 21, and those for more niche audiences, such as MLA's Standards for Vision Science Libraries. Davis then described the standards development process from the early generation of the idea, through formation of a sanctioned working group, public review and comment, and final publication, which is then followed by ongoing maintenance and future revision. Davis identified several ways that individuals can get involved in NISO standards development: serving on a technical working group, organizing educational events, participating in NISO's organizational leadership, and contributing articles to NISO publications. The NISO Content and Collection Management Topic Committee was discussed as an example of one of NISO's leadership committees.

Presentation slides from the webinar are available from the event webpage. Forthcoming webinars in the series will discuss specific standards in more depth, including OpenURL (August 21), ONIX-PL (September 10), SUSHI (October 2), and Identifiers (October 29). Watch for future announcements of registration availability.

KBART Working Group Update

The joint NISO/UKSG KBART (Knowledge Base And Related Tools) working group has already drafted several sections of their recommended practice that will discuss how to improve the creation of, provision of data to, and implementation of knowledge bases that are used in OpenURL applications. The recommendations are expected to address six core areas: title relations, date coverage, data & transfer, supply chain, compliance, and licensing. Separate sub-groups within the KBART working group have been established to work on each of these areas, articulating the problems within that area and working out potential solutions, which will be reviewed and approved (following revision, if necessary) by the broader group. These solutions will form the basis of the KBART guidelines. To give you a flavor of the discussions, one contentious issue to date was how best to enforce improvements to accuracy of metadata.

KBART co-chairs, Peter McCracken and Charlie Rapple have spoken at several events recently, including UKSG, NASIG, and ALA, to inform the community about the project. In all cases, audiences have been very enthusiastic about the group's activities and have contributed a great deal of their own experience to the ongoing work. Visit the UKSG session report to get a sense of the nature of these presentations and to review slides. Proposals have also been submitted for KBART sessions at the Charleston Conference (US, November), Online Information (UK, December), ACRL (US, March), and UKSG (UK, April).

Publicly available websites on the group's progress are available from both NISO and UKSG that include some of the outputs of the group's work so far, including a glossary of commonly-used terms, a list of the group's members, and an archive of public updates to date. A KBART Interest Group email list has been set up for those interested in receiving updates and alerts of new information. Subscribe by sending an email to: kbart_interest-subscribe@list.niso.org. The archives of the email list are available online.

Thank you to Charlie Rapple, KBART co-chair for this update.

New Specs & Standards

Bibliographic Ontology Specification, Revision 1.00

The specification is an effort to express citations and bibliographic relations using Resource Description Framework (RDF), and to query that same information using the SPARQL query language for RDF.

DAISY Consortium, 2008 DAISY Structure Guidelines

The DAISY 3 Structure Guidelines provide information on the correct usage and application of DAISY XML (the DTBook XML element set) in the creation of DAISY publications. The DAISY/NISO Standard (ANSI/NISO Z39.86), Specifications for the Digital Talking Book, is known as DAISY 3.

ISO/IEC 18000-1:2008, Information technology – Radio frequency identification for item management – Part 1: Reference architecture and definition of parameters to be standardized

Edition 2 of the standard that defines the generic architecture concepts in which item identification may commonly be required within the logistics and supply chain and defines the parameters that need to be determined in any standardized air interface definition in the subsequent parts of ISO/IEC 18000.

Unicode Last Resort Font, free download

The Last Resort font is a collection of glyphs to represent types of Unicode characters. These glyphs are used as the backup of "last resort" to any other font; if the font cannot represent any particular Unicode character, the appropriate "missing" glyph from the Last Resort font is used instead.

W3C Working Draft, SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System Reference

Defines the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS), a common data model for sharing and linking knowledge organization systems via the Semantic Web. SKOS aims to provide a bridge between different communities of practice within the library and information sciences involved in the design and application of knowledge organization systems. See changes from the previous draft.

Media Stories

SERU: A Licensing Advance
Library Journal (06/01/08) p. 26 ; Tenopir, Carol

Shared E-Resources Understanding (SERU) is a document of understanding between libraries and publishers that skips the headache of license negotiation by depending on purchase orders and copyright law. SERU describes "commonly agreed-upon expectations for using and providing electronic resources," including libraries' obligation to notify patrons of appropriate use and the expectations by libraries of uninterrupted access to content that complies with industry standards. SERU recognizes preservation and archiving, along with a subscribing library's right to retain permanent access to a resource, even if the subscription is terminated, by paying a "reasonable annual fee" to cover a publisher's costs. "With a single agreement we can return to our former relationship with publishers of them wishing to sell us their material, our wishing to buy their materials, and a simple purchasing transaction granting both wishes," says Northeastern University Libraries' Janet Belanger Morrow. "At a university where every agreement is reviewed by our legal department, a single document on which we can base multiple publisher transactions offers some relief from the unbearably expensive licensing process in which we've all become mired." The list of current SERU participants includes 41 libraries, 20 publishers, and four consortia, and while the majority of publishers are professional societies, academic presses, and open access publishers, the SERU team is hoping to bring some larger commercial publishers on board. Smaller publishers have been particularly drawn to SERU due to the cost associated with license agreements, negotiations, and renegotiations, and SERU co-creator and Informed Strategies President Judy Luther says the only recommendation stemming from the trial period was "to spread the word" so that librarians and publishers do not need to explain SERU to each other.
(Link to Web Source)

NISO Note: Visit the SERU webpage for a copy of the recommended practice, an FAQ, the registry and more. The Association of Research Libraries is a NISO voting member.

Rethinking Research Libraries in the 21st Century
CLIR Issues (06/08) no. 63

How the research library concept should be rethought as the information landscape changes in the 21st century was the subject of a discussion organized by the Council on Library and Information Resources. Participants indicated that the research library will reflect fundamental changes in how scholars work and its evolution will keep pace with new scholarly techniques and the scholarly environment, while the library's work will be structured according to the interests of the broader system of stakeholders, necessitating the development of mechanisms to ensure the quality of shared digital resources. Also recognized in the discussion was the need for the library to guarantee the authentication and persistence of digital information that is critical to future scholars; to leverage the potential of embeddability so that users can engage with information at progressive levels of value-added functionality; to organize the library to focus collectively on common problems; and for the library to function as a laboratory for understanding how a new generation of faculty and students do their work, and for experimentation and advancement in processes that support e-research across numerous communities. To meet these challenges, professional communities will have to reduce their insularity, while the traditional separateness between libraries and commercial entities will have to be reevaluated. An expansion of student-library alliances was recommended, as was striking a balance between libraries' risk-averse tendencies and the need to respond to a changing scholarly environment. (Link to Web Source)

Key Differences Between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0
First Monday (06/08) vol. 13, no. 6 ; Cormode, Graham; Krishnamurthy, Balachander

Among Web 2.0's key attributes are the growth of social networks, bi-directional communication, diverse content types, and various "glue" technologies, and the authors note that while most of Web 2.0 shares the same substrate as Web 1.0, there are some significant differences. Features typical of Web 2.0 Web sites include users as first class entities in the system, with prominent profile pages; the ability to connect with users through links to other users who are "friends," membership in various types of "groups," and subscriptions or RSS feeds of "updates" from other users; the ability to post content in various media, including blogs, photos, videos, ratings, and tags; and more technical features, such as embedding of various rich content types, communication with other users through internal email or instant messaging systems, and a public API to permit third-party augmentations and mash-ups. Web 1.0 metrics of similar interest in Web 2.0 include the general portion of Internet traffic, numbers of users and servers, and portion of various protocols. About 500 million users reside in a few tens of social networks with the top few responsible for the bulk of the users and traffic, and traffic within a Web 2.0 site is more difficult to measure without help from the site itself. The challenges for streamlining popular sites for mobile users differ slightly between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0, in that instant notification to users through mobile devices can be facilitated because of the short or episodic nature of most Web 2.0 communications. Most communication in Web 2.0 is between users, so Web 2.0 sites have no easy way to select during overload; however, the sites apply varying restrictions to guarantee that overall load and latency is reasonably maintained. Some of the Web 2.0 sites are eager to maximize and retain members within an "electronic fence," which can facilitate balkanization, although total balkanization is likely to be prevented by a countercurrent stemming from the prevalent link-based nature of Web users continuously connecting to sites outside the fence. The authors point out that there are substantial challenges in permitting users to comprehend privacy implications and to simply represent usage policies for their personal data. (Link to Web Source)

Birth Pangs for the 'Semantic Web'
New Scientist (05/31/08) no. 2658, p. 26 ; Giles, Jim

Wikipedia and several other large data sources have over the past year made the change to formats that will ease the combination of their data as a step toward the establishment of a Semantic Web, while software that integrates these sources is also under development. The semantic version of Wikipedia, named DBpedia, was created by a team at Germany's University of Leipzig and the Free University of Berlin, who have devised software that analyzes Wikipedia content and restructures it into a list of statements about "things," such as people and places. This format will ultimately enable users to find information using questions rather than by searching for phrases. Web pages can be tagged in a manner that allows computers to comprehend what kind of information they contain and thus combine data from different sources in interesting ways, using the World Wide Web Consortium's Resource Description Framework. A Semantic Web could place the ability to develop mashups in the hands of users rather than programmers, but the lack of an easy method for searching the Semantic Web, among other things, makes the likelihood of its realization uncertain. Some Web experts say that Semantic Web proponents have devoted too much attention to the technical aspects of their schemes, and this has failed to make content creators buy into the Semantic Web concept. Web developers and users may instead employ less complicated semantic systems, such as the metadata tags currently used to represent shared bookmarks.
(Link to Web Source)

NISO Note: For more information on DBpedia and similar projects, see Ed Summers column, Following Your Nose to the Web of Data, in the Winter 2008 issue of NISO's Information Standards Quarterly.

Rummaging Through the Internet
Economist Technology Quarterly (06/08) vol. 387, no. 8583, p. 14

Web browsing promises to be transformed by new methods for navigating and collecting information online, and one such method is the freely available Hyperwords browser add-on, which turns every word or phrase on a page into a hyperlink. Meanwhile, the Cooliris startup has developed PicLens, free software that gathers and displays images retrieved from Google, Flickr, eBay, and other Web sites on a full-screen, 3D wall without any of the clutter on each image's Web page. Such applications hint at one possible future incarnation of Web browsing, in which users navigate through groupings of pages that appear to float in space, pushing undesirable ones away and organizing others in logical clusters. In late July, the Second Life 3D virtual environment will incorporate a feature that lets inhabitants post Web pages on walls, changing Web browsing from a solitary to a social experience because users roaming virtually through the environment can convene and chat next to Web pages, according to Linden Labs executive Joe Miller. Another social browsing tool is 3B's 3B browser, which arranges pictures of the results of product searches within the aisles of a virtual shop, where shoppers can gather to see better and chat through instant messaging with other shoppers looking for similar items. Carnegie Mellon University computer scientist Dave Farber predicts that the coolness of the visuals generated by such tools will eventually give way to the realization of the need for 3D navigation.
(Link to Web Source)

'It Ain't Over Till It's Over': Impact of the Microsoft Shutdown
Information Today (06/05/08) ; Quint, Barbara

Despite Microsoft's decision to terminate its Live Search Books and Live Search Academic projects, libraries say Microsoft will continue its digitization effort for a little longer. Librarians at Cornell University say they expect to see tens of thousands more books digitized by Microsoft before the program finally shuts down later this summer. Neil Fitzgerald, project manager for the Microsoft digitization project at the British Library, says Microsoft has agreed to work until the completion of the target, which could involve at least 60,000 books in addition to the 40,000 that have already been digitized. Fitzgerald expects the effort to take Microsoft another six months to finish. "In the wider context of digitization, Microsoft was just one string to our bow," Fitzgerald says. "We are working on a range of public and private partnership projects to deliver content." Microsoft's withdrawal from the digitalization effort could have the largest effect on smaller, more subject-focused libraries that are too small for Google Book Search. For example, the Princeton Theological Seminary signed an agreement in January and had expected to go into full production in June, eventually scanning about 300,000 books and 600,000 microforms. Now, collection development librarian Don Vorp expects the project to finish with only about 3,000 to 4,000 books scanned.
(Link to Web Source)