Home | Public Area

Comment #00656 - Proposing to introduce the <semantic> tag - z39_96-2015.pdf (revision #1)

Comment 656
Addressed (Unresolved)
ANSI/NISO Z39.96-2015, JATS: Journal Article Tag Suite, version 1.1 (Revision 1)
Comment Submitted by
Soichi Tokizane
2016-08-31 16:02:08

In American/English articles, italics are used to express certain meanings.  For example, the Oxford Style Manual 2003 lists electronic references, emphasis, foreign phrases, law text, names, scientific texts, and titles of works as use cases of italics.  Especially in STM articles, italics are used to indicate genus-species or bacteria strains.


In Japanese articles, it is customary to concatenate a book name with a kind of quotation marks, "?" and "?".  As the same quotation marks can be used to quote spoken text, this use is actually confusing.


In JATS, <named-content> may be used to describe semantic details, but this element is very general, and do not meet recent need to describe precise semantic information.  We propose to introduce the <semantic> tag to generically indicate certain meaning of a word or a phrase.  To describe the type of semantics, we would like to include attributes such as @vocabulary and @termname.  The attribute, @vocabulary, describes the type of vocabulary used such as "RDF", "DC", "taxonomy", specific ontology used, e.g. "Gene ontology" or any other named entities such as book titles or person names.  The attribue, @termname, describes the name of the entity value within the ontology. 


The example of the <named-content>,


<named-content content-type="genus"> Zea</named content>

<named-content content-type="species">Z. mays</named content>


may not be descriptive enough.  By using <semantic> with @vocabulary="biological", it is clearer that "genus" and "species" are part of biological classification..


<semantic vocabulary="biological" termname="genus">Zea</semantic>

<semantic vocabulary="biological" termname="species">Z. mays</semantic>


Vocabulary values varies depending on the scientific fileds.  For example, the value, "chemical" may be used to express various chemical entities such as chemical names or chemical formula.


<semantic vocabulary="chemical" termname="chemical name">Aspirin</semantic>

<semantic vocabulary="chemical" termname="chemical formula">C<sub>9</sub>H<sub>8</sub>O<sub>4</sub></semantic>


or one can specifically identify other named entities such as city names within a paragraph, e.g.,


<semantic vocabulary="place" termname="city">Tokyo</semantic>


Recently, many publishers are interested in adding semantic indexing to their journal articles.  It is desirable to standardize the way to tag such semantics by JATS.


If <semantic> is used together with emphasizing styles such as italic, it is possible to code it using @style-type and @style-detail as follows,  Please refer to our another proposal, "Introducing the Emphasis Tag2 for the @style-type and @style-detail.


<semantic vocabulary="Dublin Core" termname=" title" style-type="italic" style-detail="slant" >Catcher in the Rye</semantic>


This proposal does not intend to replace the current tags such as <bold>, <italic>, <sc>, etc.  Rather it intends to provide publishers with opportunity to index semantic terms appropriately for value-added use of contents..



Supporting File: Introducing the Semantic tag.pdf
Submitter Proposed Solution
Ms. B. Tommie Usdin
2017-08-31 08:48:16

The request to add a <semantic> element is denied. However, in order to meet this need, additional attributes will be added to <named-content>. These attributes will enable the association of named-content with a controlled vocabulary and a term in that vocabulary. The attributes are: 

? A new attribute will name the vocabulary (taxonomy, ontology, database), (e.g., ?DC?). [Potential name ?vocab?]
? A second new attribute will be available to point directly to the vocabulary, using a URI or DOI for example, for vocabularies for which that is possible. [Potential name ?vocab-identifier?]
? A third new attribute will be available to contain the vocabulary/taxonomic term, the canonical form of the free form prose content of the element. (Potential name for this attribute is ?vocab-term?)
? A fourth new attribute (also likely a URI) will be available to point directly to the term within the vocabulary, for vocabularies for which that is possible. [Potential name ?vocab-term-identifier?]